Simulation of High Temperature Processes

Lecturers: Odenthal / Kirschen

The lecture “Simulation of High Temperature Processes” will be offered in German language in the summer semester as a block event. If you are interested, please contact the institute secretariat (Tel.: +49 (0)241-80 25936) or Prof. Odenthal (Tel.: +49 (0)211-881 4143).


Flow and thermal effects play an important role in metallurgical high-temperature process engineering. One example is the flow of the hot steel melt in the BOF converter. The geometry of the converter and the blowing lance, the position of the blowing lance above the melt, the number and arrangement of the bottom plugs and the blowing rate of the process and flushing gases determine productivity and steel quality. General questions are how the individual phases (melt, slag, gases) interact with each other, how splashing and the associated slag sticking to the lance can be reduced and how the homogenization of the melt can be intensified. Further examples are melt flows in electric furnaces (EAF), AOD converters for stainless steel production, steel casting ladles, continuous casting distributors, ingot moulds and conveyor systems. As a result of the extreme conditions, most processes cannot be observed or measured directly. For this reason, such processes must be simulated.
In this lecture, basic flow phenomena of high temperature technology are explained using practical examples from the steel industry. The current simulation techniques, i.e. operating test, physical simulation on the model and numerical simulation (Computational Fluid Dynamics – CFD) are presented in detail. The lecture is accompanied by a series of exercises.
Students will be able to classify and evaluate metallurgical process engineering equipment and the fluidic and thermal processes that take place within it. The lecture imparts the basic knowledge for the design of metallurgical plants and their components.

1. Introduction
1.1 Examples from the process technic and the metallurgical process technic

2. Dimensional analysis and dimensionless codes
2.1 Induction
2.2 Bridgman-Postulate – potency representation of the dimension formula
2.3 Pi-theorem of Buckingham (1914)
2.4 Examples
2.5 Codes of similarity

3. Basics /Basic knowledge of flow- and thermal technic
3.1 Possibilities of flow simulation
3.2 Balance equations
3.3 Navier-Strokes’s equation (NS)
3.4 Reynold’s equation (RANS/URANS)
3.5 Models of turbulence

4. Induction to the area of gas dynamics
5. Flow measurement technology

6. Reactor theory
6.1 Reactor types
6.2 Evaluation criteria for reactors
6.3 Ideal reactors
6.4 Real reactors
6.5 Dwell time for stationary flow reactors
6.6 Determination of the dwell time distribution
6.7 Examples

7. Basics /Basic knowledge of thermochemical modelling
7.1 Motivation
7.2 Calculation of the free enthalpy of pure substances
7.3 Calculation of the free enthalpy within multicomponent systems
7.4 Algorithms of minimisation
7.5 Examples from the area of high temperature process technology: Refinement of raw steel melts, wear of fireproof deliveries, etc.

8. Reaction kinetic and transport characteristics of fluids
8.1 Chemical reactor rates
8.2 Transport characteristics of gases and plasma
8.3 CFD in chemical reacting media, such as combustion, decarburisation, etc.
(Chapter 1-6: Prof. Odenthal)
(Chapter 7-8: Dr. Kirschen)